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Ngày đăng: 18/07/2016

Chuyên mục: Kiến thức

We've all heard about the supposed relationship between confidence and
knowledge - but is it true? Two researchers think they've found the
answer. Learn more at HowStuffWorks.com:
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http://www.brainstuffshow.com Hey, BrainStuff, it’s me, Ben. If you’re
like most people, you think you’re very good at some things, and are
able to admit you’re less good at others. You probably think you’re
superbly talented in one or two areas - and hey, you might be right. You
try to be honest with yourself about your strong points and your weak
ones. You likely shake your head in pity at people you see as, well,
stupid. “Why do they keep dumbing everywhere?” you ask yourself, “Why
don’t they understand that they’re bad at doing stuff? There is an
answer, but you might not like it. And this answer doesn’t just apply to
people you think of as “dumb”. It applies to everyone on Earth…
including you and me. It’s not a matter of intelligence, necessarily– a
difficult thing to measure– but it is related to “competence”, the
ability to do something well. In 1999 a psychologist named David
Dunning and his grad assistant Justin Kruger tested a group of students
in several categories: “the ability to think logically, to write
grammatically, and to spot funny jokes”. They also asked the students to
rate their skills in these categories. That’s when they noticed
something weird. The people scoring below average on these tests
weren’t just incompetent in these categories – they also didn’t know
they were incompetent. And here’s the kicker: the less competent they
were, the MORE competent they ranked themselves. This is a phenomenon
called “illusory superiority” (which sounds like the name of a Radiohead
B-Side, but isn’t, as far as we know). Instead, this is a cognitive bias
wherein people tend to rate their own abilities as above-average. You
know, like how everyone’s thinks they’re a good driver or believes they
have a great sense of humor. Multiple studies have proven this effect in
everything from firearms to college debates and med students’ opinions
of their interviewing skills. It doesn’t seem to matter what specific
skill we’re talking about – the less a person knows about it, the more
likely they are to overestimate their knowledge. While Dunning and
Kruger popularized this effect in modern society, they weren’t the first
people to notice the relationship between confidence, modesty and skill.
Philosophers throughout the ages have contemplated this idea, like
Bertrand Russell, who famously wrote “The trouble with the world is that
the stupid are cocksure and the intelligent are full of doubt.” And
here’s another weird thing. People with actual competency are likely to
actually underestimate their abilities. Researchers believe this modesty
comes because competent people are more aware of how much they don’t
actually know, as well as their field in general. They also consistently
overestimate the performance ability of others. It all goes back to
one primary thing – metacognition. Metacognition is the ability to be
aware of and understand your own thought process. In other words, the
ability to think about how you think. People tend to evaluate
themselves through what Dunning and Kruger call a “top-down” approach.
Instead of objectively measuring their performance, people start with
their preconceived notions of their skill and use that belief to
evaluate their performance. SOURCES:
http://petapixel.com/2014/10/13/dunning-kruger-peak-photography/ http://www.psych.nyu.edu/jost/Zuckerman%20&%20Jost%20(2001)%20What%20Makes%20You%20Think%20You're%20So%20Popular1.pdf
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