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Thể loại: Khoa học, Kiến thức

Kênh: Brain stuff

Thời gian tạo: 1 năm trước

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Viet sub 03:20

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Brain stuff

We've all heard about the supposed relationship between confidence andknowledge - but is it true? Two researchers think they've found theanswer. Learn more at HowStuffWorks.com:http://people.howstuffworks.com/decisions-groups-decisions-alone.htmShare on Facebook: http://goo.gl/SBM7wy Share on Twitter:http://goo.gl/tz0IoH Subscribe: http://goo.gl/ZYI7Gt Visit our site:http://www.brainstuffshow.com Hey, BrainStuff, it’s me, Ben. If you’relike most people, you think you’re very good at some things, and areable to admit you’re less good at others. You probably think you’resuperbly talented in one or two areas - and hey, you might be right. Youtry to be honest with yourself about your strong points and your weakones. You likely shake your head in pity at people you see as, well,stupid. “Why do they keep dumbing everywhere?” you ask yourself, “Whydon’t they understand that they’re bad at doing stuff? There is ananswer, but you might not like it. And this answer doesn’t just apply topeople you think of as “dumb”. It applies to everyone on Earth…including you and me. It’s not a matter of intelligence, necessarily– adifficult thing to measure– but it is related to “competence”, theability to do something well. In 1999 a psychologist named DavidDunning and his grad assistant Justin Kruger tested a group of studentsin several categories: “the ability to think logically, to writegrammatically, and to spot funny jokes”. They also asked the students torate their skills in these categories. That’s when they noticedsomething weird. The people scoring below average on these testsweren’t just incompetent in these categories – they also didn’t knowthey were incompetent. And here’s the kicker: the less competent theywere, the MORE competent they ranked themselves. This is a phenomenoncalled “illusory superiority” (which sounds like the name of a RadioheadB-Side, but isn’t, as far as we know). Instead, this is a cognitive biaswherein people tend to rate their own abilities as above-average. Youknow, like how everyone’s thinks they’re a good driver or believes theyhave a great sense of humor. Multiple studies have proven this effect ineverything from firearms to college debates and med students’ opinionsof their interviewing skills. It doesn’t seem to matter what specificskill we’re talking about – the less a person knows about it, the morelikely they are to overestimate their knowledge. While Dunning andKruger popularized this effect in modern society, they weren’t the firstpeople to notice the relationship between confidence, modesty and skill.Philosophers throughout the ages have contemplated this idea, likeBertrand Russell, who famously wrote “The trouble with the world is thatthe stupid are cocksure and the intelligent are full of doubt.” Andhere’s another weird thing. People with actual competency are likely toactually underestimate their abilities. Researchers believe this modestycomes because competent people are more aware of how much they don’tactually know, as well as their field in general. They also consistentlyoverestimate the performance ability of others. It all goes back toone primary thing – metacognition. Metacognition is the ability to beaware of and understand your own thought process. In other words, theability to think about how you think. People tend to evaluatethemselves through what Dunning and Kruger call a “top-down” approach.Instead of objectively measuring their performance, people start withtheir preconceived notions of their skill and use that belief toevaluate their performance. SOURCES:http://psych.colorado.edu/~vanboven/teaching/p7536_heurbias/p7536_readings/kruger_dunning.pdfhttp://people.howstuffworks.com/human-intelligence-info.htmhttp://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/lessons-from-dunning-kruger/http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121http://petapixel.com/2014/10/13/dunning-kruger-peak-photography/ http://www.psych.nyu.edu/jost/Zuckerman%20&%20Jost%20(2001)%20What%20Makes%20You%20Think%20You're%20So%20Popular1.pdf
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Viet sub 03:17

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Brain stuff

Dressing up to feel powerful may have been a fashion fad of the 1980s,but do we still think differently if we wear formal clothes? Learn moreat HowStuffWorks.com: http://money.howstuffworks.com/busine... Share onFacebook: https://goo.gl/fkNE01 Share on Twitter: https://goo.gl/f012QlSubscribe: http://goo.gl/ZYI7Gt Visit our site:http://www.brainstuffshow.com Well hello there BrainStuff. I’m CristenConger and I’ve got a question for you. Do I look powerful? 'Cause Ifeel powerful! Some people even think that what you wear (especiallyfeminist sweatshirts) can produce this kind of confidence. So what isthis so-called “power dressing?” And does it actually work? To answerthat question we have to take a trip to the smooth 1970s, when a guynamed John Molloy came out with a series of books about “dressing forsuccess.” For men, Molloy recommended conservative business attire thatwas high-quality and fit well. Essentially, a business suit in a darkhue, with a modest white shirt and tie. Think Don Draper. For women,he adapted this uniform to include a skirted suit, and a soft blousewith floppy or bowed neck piece. Think Margaret Thatcher. In order toachieve the kind of authority of The Iron Lady, Molloy recommended womendo two things. Don’t look like a secretary, and don’t look too sexy.Because of course women should protect themselves from their own sexualobjectification! You couldn’t wear waistcoats or contoured jackets,according to Molloy, because they drew attention to the bust. Scarveswere popular because they drew attention to the face and away from thebreasts. It's all about distraction, you see! And floral prints andfeminine colors like salmon pink were out. But you didn’t want to looktoo masculine either, hence the skirts instead of trousers. This wasthe birth of “power dressing.” And by the 1980s, it became the way“enterprising” women learned to manage or limit the potential sexualityof their bodies and leave all that gross girl stuff like cooties athome. But as they entered the corporate workforce in ever-greaternumbers, some women wanted to modify this uniform while maintainingtheir professional appearance. One alternative model for breaking outof these fashion limitations was Princess Diana, with her more glamorousoutfits. Others were on TV, in shows like “Dynasty,” “Designing Women”and “Moonlighting.” Enter broad shoulder pads, wide lapels and a widerrange of textures, colors and accessories. Cut to present day! Most ofthese fashion fads have come and gone, but you can still see theirinfluence on politicians, for example. Take Hillary Clinton. Or DonaldTrump. Many of the tenets of power dressing are still in play today, wejust don’t call it that anymore. But a 2015 study re-examined theprinciples behind power dressing. It found that putting on formalclothing does indeed make us feel powerful and even makes us thinkdifferently. The authors of this study tested student participants ina series of experiments by rating their outfits and taking cognitivetests. When the students switched out of sweatpants and into the kind ofclothing they thought they should wear to a job interview, the testsshowed their cognitive processing became more abstract, broader andholistic. The authors also say that how often you actually wear formalclothes doesn’t matter. Regardless of when you wear it, these uniformshave become a symbol of power. SOURCES: Schaefer, J. O. (2015). Powerdressing. Salem Press Encyclopediahttp://www.theatlantic.com/business/a...http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05...http://m.spp.sagepub.com/content/earl...http://lifehacker.com/5867952/dress-f...http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10...http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/... Joanne Entwistle, The FashionedBody. 2015 http://www.theguardian.com/culture/20...
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