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Thể loại: Khoa học, Kiến thức

Kênh: Brain stuff

Thời gian tạo: 2 năm trước

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Brain stuff

We've all heard about the supposed relationship between confidence andknowledge - but is it true? Two researchers think they've found theanswer. Learn more at HowStuffWorks.com:http://people.howstuffworks.com/decisions-groups-decisions-alone.htmShare on Facebook: http://goo.gl/SBM7wy Share on Twitter:http://goo.gl/tz0IoH Subscribe: http://goo.gl/ZYI7Gt Visit our site:http://www.brainstuffshow.com Hey, BrainStuff, it’s me, Ben. If you’relike most people, you think you’re very good at some things, and areable to admit you’re less good at others. You probably think you’resuperbly talented in one or two areas - and hey, you might be right. Youtry to be honest with yourself about your strong points and your weakones. You likely shake your head in pity at people you see as, well,stupid. “Why do they keep dumbing everywhere?” you ask yourself, “Whydon’t they understand that they’re bad at doing stuff? There is ananswer, but you might not like it. And this answer doesn’t just apply topeople you think of as “dumb”. It applies to everyone on Earth…including you and me. It’s not a matter of intelligence, necessarily– adifficult thing to measure– but it is related to “competence”, theability to do something well. In 1999 a psychologist named DavidDunning and his grad assistant Justin Kruger tested a group of studentsin several categories: “the ability to think logically, to writegrammatically, and to spot funny jokes”. They also asked the students torate their skills in these categories. That’s when they noticedsomething weird. The people scoring below average on these testsweren’t just incompetent in these categories – they also didn’t knowthey were incompetent. And here’s the kicker: the less competent theywere, the MORE competent they ranked themselves. This is a phenomenoncalled “illusory superiority” (which sounds like the name of a RadioheadB-Side, but isn’t, as far as we know). Instead, this is a cognitive biaswherein people tend to rate their own abilities as above-average. Youknow, like how everyone’s thinks they’re a good driver or believes theyhave a great sense of humor. Multiple studies have proven this effect ineverything from firearms to college debates and med students’ opinionsof their interviewing skills. It doesn’t seem to matter what specificskill we’re talking about – the less a person knows about it, the morelikely they are to overestimate their knowledge. While Dunning andKruger popularized this effect in modern society, they weren’t the firstpeople to notice the relationship between confidence, modesty and skill.Philosophers throughout the ages have contemplated this idea, likeBertrand Russell, who famously wrote “The trouble with the world is thatthe stupid are cocksure and the intelligent are full of doubt.” Andhere’s another weird thing. People with actual competency are likely toactually underestimate their abilities. Researchers believe this modestycomes because competent people are more aware of how much they don’tactually know, as well as their field in general. They also consistentlyoverestimate the performance ability of others. It all goes back toone primary thing – metacognition. Metacognition is the ability to beaware of and understand your own thought process. In other words, theability to think about how you think. People tend to evaluatethemselves through what Dunning and Kruger call a “top-down” approach.Instead of objectively measuring their performance, people start withtheir preconceived notions of their skill and use that belief toevaluate their performance. SOURCES:http://psych.colorado.edu/~vanboven/teaching/p7536_heurbias/p7536_readings/kruger_dunning.pdfhttp://people.howstuffworks.com/human-intelligence-info.htmhttp://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/lessons-from-dunning-kruger/http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121http://petapixel.com/2014/10/13/dunning-kruger-peak-photography/ http://www.psych.nyu.edu/jost/Zuckerman%20&%20Jost%20(2001)%20What%20Makes%20You%20Think%20You're%20So%20Popular1.pdf
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